"Natural Wastewater Treatment" Solutions for Cities and Businesses
Provide Natural Wastewater Treatment
Design, Engineering &
help cities, communities and businesses eliminate their
* Biomethane production
* Synthesis Gas production
us for an initial no-obligation consult.
Water and Wastewater Treatment
What is Water and Wastewater Treatment?
Water and wastewater treatment is the process of safely removing harmful contaminants (bacteria, viruses, pathogens, chemicals, etc) from sewage and industrial water and rendering the processed/treated water safe to return to the environment.
Clean Power Generation Solutions
Our "Integrated" CHP Systems (Cogeneration and Trigeneration) Plants
Have Very High Efficiencies, Low Fuel Costs & Low Emissions
The CHP System below is Rated at 900 kW and Features:
(2) Natural Gas Engines @ 450 kW each on one Skid with Optional
Selective Catalytic Reduction system that removes Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect."
The Effective Heat Rate of the CHP System below is
4100 btu/kW with a Net System Efficiency of 92%.
Our CHP Systems may be the best solution for your company's economic and environmental sustainability as we "upgrade" natural gas to clean power with our clean power generation solutions.
Our Emissions Abatement solutions reduce Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect" which means our CHP Systems can be installed and operated in most EPA non-attainment regions!
Our CHP Systems - (operating in either natural gas fueled cogeneration or trigeneration --- or --- solar cogeneration or solar trigeneration configuration) may be the optimum power and energy solution for customers wanting increased power reliability and decreased energy and environmental costs. A few of the clients and markets that may benefit from our CHP Systems include the following:
Colleges & Universities
District Heating & Cooling plants
Food Processing Plants
Government Buildings and Facilities
Office Buildings / Campuses
For qualified clients we will design, build, finance, own, operate and maintain a new:
Clean Power Generation
Organic Rankine Cycle
Waste Heat Recovery
system, through a Power
Purchase Agreement that guarantees
a minimum 10% reduction in our client's energy expenses.
(NOTE: Our engineering and EPC services may be provided by one of our affiliated
companies - one of which is a Top ENR ranked EPC company.
To receive a preliminary no-obligation review of your energy, engineering or
send an introductory email to us at the following email address:
We provide engineering and renewable energy project development services (some through affiliated companies) including a top-ranked ENR EPC company;
Balance of Plant - BOP
Balance of System - BOS
Battery Energy Storage - BES
Carbon Emissions Consulting
Concentrated Solar Power - CSP
Demand Side Management - DSM
Front End Engineering Design - FEED
Greenhouse Gas Emissions consulting
High Voltage Direct Current - HVDC
Net Zero Energy - NZE
Net Zero Energy Buildings - NZEB
Organic Rankine Cycle - ORC
Power Purchase Agreement consulting & PPA fundingProject Development
Project Finance/Funding introduction to potential investors
Our work is performed on a strict adherence to "vendor-neutrality." We are client and project focused and seek to maximize our client's return on their investment while simultaneously minimizing their operational expenses and environmental exposure. (NOTE: Our engineering and EPC services may be provided by one of our affiliated companies - one of which is a Top ENR ranked EPC company. Engineering and related interim project development expenses may be at client's expense but will be refunded at the close of Power Purchase Agreement or other project financing. Some of our engineering and related EPC services may be provided by one of our top-ranked ENR Engineering/EPC affiliated companies.
Engineering and Project Development Services
Anaerobic Digesters * Biogas Development * Biogas Plant * Biogas to Biomethane
Biomethane * Cogeneration * CHP System * Methane Recovery * Waste to Energy * Waste to Fuel
Products, Services & Affiliated Companies
Absorption Chillers * Adsorption Chillers * Ammonia Chillers * Automated Demand Response
Brayton Cycle * Carbon Emissions * Carnot Cycle * Cheng Cycle * CHP Systems * Clean Power Generation
Cogeneration * Compressed Air Energy Storage * Concentrating Solar Power * Dispersed Generation
EcoGeneration * Emissions Abatement * Energy Master Planning * Frequency Regulation
Engine Driven Chillers * Graz Cycle * Greenhouse Gas Emissions * Greenhouse Gas Reporting
Grid Free Energy * Grid Free Power * Inlet Cooling * Load Leveling
Mechanical Refrigeration * Net Zero Energy * Net Zero Energy Buildings * Net Zero Energy Homes
Organic Rankine Cycle * PlugIn Electric Vehicles * Rankine Cycle * Recycled Energy
Solar Cogeneration * Solar Trigeneration * Trigeneration * Waste Heat Recovery
The Graz Cycle is also known as the "Zero Emission Power Plant!"
Greenhouse Gas Reporting services now available
What is a Natural Wastewater Treatment system?
A Natural Wastewater Treatment plant or system, is also known as a "constructed wetland" or a "Constructed Ecosystem" and are an alternative to mechanical wastewater treatment systems, which are methods that treat and purify wastewater.
We believe that our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants or Constructed Ecosystems are far superior to the mechanical type of wastewater treatment systems that resolve wastewater treatment problems that occur naturally in the environment, without adding millions of gallons of chemicals and chlorine to the environment.
Our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants are complex, engineered integrated systems that include water, plants, animals, microorganisms and the local environment that specifically engineered for the specific location and wastewater issues to resolve these wastewater problems that are resolved by our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants by interacting with the sun, soil, air to purify wastewater to levels not reached by mechanical treatment plants.
To the extent that our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants are man-made, and that what is provided by nature to be "natural" our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants are, in fact, artificial wetlands. The benefit is that our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants optimize what would have been artificial into a synergy that maximizes biology, geology and hydrology for specific wastewater problems at specific locations. Our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants or are the result of human engineering and not only provide superior results when compared with mechanical wastewater treatment plants, but do so with 50% to 70% fewer personnel to operate, and about 60% less expensive top operate, but are also far less prone to upset conditions that plague mechanical wastewater treatment plants.
of all, our Natural
Wastewater Treatment plants actually generate a return on investment when we
provide our complete "waste to
energy" or waste to fuel
solution that utilizes the abundant amounts of biomass we produce with our Natural
Wastewater Treatment plants - which then becomes a "feedstock" for
a biomass gasification
plant. The biomass
gasification generates synthesis gas,
which is then used as a fuel for our cogeneration
or trigeneration power plant that
generates "carbon free energy"
or as what we prefer to call, and EcoGeneration
When properly engineered, designed built, maintained and operated, our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants effectively remove the numerous pollutants associated with agricultural, industrial, municipal (including stormwater) and industrial wastewaters. Our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants are particularly effective at removing wastewater contaminants such as; BOD, hydrocarbons, nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended solids, and even metals.
Natural Wastewater Treatment
plants are an excellent alternative to mechanical treatment plants at locations
such as; agricultural operations such as; animal feeding operations/CAFOs,
including chicken/poultry operations, dairy farms, hog farms, as well as treating municipal effluent, industrial and commercial wastewater, agricultural runoff, stormwater runoff,
acid mine drainage and landfill leachates.
Our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants generate no offensive smells, and can serve as a wildlife site which will attract various animals and provide a habitat for them. And, our Our Natural Wastewater Treatment plant can also serve as a public attraction providing environmental education opportunities.
To date, our lead engineer has designed three (3) Our Natural Wastewater Treatment plants that are now in operation in Texas, and four more are in our pipeline at various locations in the U.S.
We provide turnkey "Natural Wastewater Treatment" solutions, design, engineering, feasibility studies, and consulting services.
Did you know that a "Natural Wastewater Treatment" plant costs about 50% to 60% less to build compared with similar-sized mechanical wastewater treatment plants?
Our most recent comparisons - a typical mechanical treatment plant that would have cost $30 million to build for a city of about 10,000 people is not as effective as as our far more efficient and superior "Natural Wastewater Treatment" plant - which we proposed was for $15 million. And, with our optional Biomass Gasification plant, can generate a significant amount of the city's electrical power requirements!
Did you know that a "Natural Wastewater Treatment" is significantly more effective and much less complicated than a typical mechanical treatment plant?
Did you know that a "Natural Wastewater Treatment" takes about 50% less staff, on average, to run compared with mechanical wastewater treatment plants?
Best of all, our "Natural Wastewater Treatment" plants are significantly more environmentally-friendly than the typical mechanical wastewater treatment plant.
So, our "Natural Wastewater Treatment" plants are superior in every possible way to the typical mechanical treatment plants.... shouldn't you be calling us to learn more. And, shouldn't your city or community be treating its' Wastewater the "Natural Way?"
What is a Sanitary Sewer?
A sanitary sewer (sanitary sewer system) includes all public structures associated with the sanitary sewer, and includes; pipes, lift stations, sewer lines and manholes in the wastewater collection system. The purpose of the sanitary sewer is to convey municipal sewage and all wastewater to a wastewater treatment system. If a pipe conveys water which needs to be treated, it is a sanitary sewer.
What is a Low Pressure Sewer System?
Low Pressure Sewer Systems are a low-head pressure wastewater collection and treatment system and an alternative to gravity sewer or a septic tank.
A Low Pressure Sewer System consists of an interceptor tank and a chamber unit, which houses a small, submersible electrical pump. The tank is installed below ground, much like a septic tank. Substantial organic waste treatment is provided energy-free in the interceptor tank. The liquid in the tank, or effluent, is pumped automatically through a small pressure line that transports it to a wastewater plant for treatment.
Low Pressure Sewer Systems have been in use since the late 1970's and are commonly used as an alternative to gravity sewer systems and septic tanks.
What are the Benefits of a Low Pressure Sewer System?
They are much less costly to install.
Pressure Mains can be installed on the side of roads - which avoids tearing up streets and expensive road work.
Mains smaller (2”- 4”), installed at about 4 feet in depth
There are no "Central Pump Stations" required.
better as they have lower potential for Inflow and Infiltration
What are the Concerns of a Low Pressure Sewer System?
Each home has its' own individual grinder pump to maintain.
If zoning densities should increase, the low pressure system typically has less capacity for the additional flow.
Individual home owners could be affected by power outages.
of the sewer mains is more critical as the Low Pressure System requires two
(2) f/s velocity to keep solids from settling out
Frequently Asked Questions with a Low Pressure Sewer System.
Will I hear the pump run?
The pump is a high-quality submersible pump. Every time you use approximately
100 to 150 gallons of water, the pump will automatically turn on and shut off.
Based on normal water usage for a family of two, the pump will run for about two
to three hours per month.
Who maintains the LPS system?
the interceptor tank to the treatment plant, the system is maintained by your
Homeowner's Association or a Municipal Utility District - this normally includes
all parts and labor costs and includes pumping out the tank if solids build up.
Any house plumbing problems are the cost and repair responsibility of the
What happens if there is a power failure?
the power is off, the pump will not operate. However, there is a reserve
capacity in the interceptor tank which allows for approximately eight hours of
normal use (excluding uses such as running a washing machine and taking a bath)
before you will experience any difficulty.
Is there anything that should not go down the drain or toilets?
YES! To protect the Low Pressure System’s biological process and to help prevent house plumbing lines from clogging, do not dispose of the following items through the drains or toilets:
• No Feminine Hygiene products of ANY kind - this includes tampons, maxipads, minipads, or pantiliners, including those that biodegrade or those that begin to break down when exposed to water.
• Plastic or rubber of any kind
• Cigarette butts (filters will not decompose)
• Greases and cooking oils of all types
• Coffee grounds and other inorganic materials
• Excessive amounts of non-dissolving tissue paper or paper towels
• Excessive use of laundry detergent or soaps
• Human or pet hair
• Cloth of any kind
Solving America's Energy Problems:
American Energy Plan sm
has NEVER had an Energy Plan.
America, now more than ever, needs an Energy Plan."
Renewable Energy Institute
Support Renewable Energy
American Energy Plan!
What is a Biogas Plant?
To understand what a biogas plant is, we must first define what biogas is.
What is Biogas?
Biogas is the "crude methane" that is generated from landfills (landfill gas) or from anaerobic digesters (also called "methane digesters"). In both landfills and anaerobic digesters, the biogas is generated without oxygen, hence the name, "anaerobic."
A "biogas plant" refers to having one or more "anaerobic digesters" at a facility that is treating/processing; agricultural waste, bakery waste, brewery waste, food waste, manure, and sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (publicly owned treatment plant - POTW).
It should be pointed out that the biogas or "crude methane" generated from anaerobic digesters has zero value and cannot be used as a fuel, or sold to a gas company. This is due to the fact that the biogas produced from the anaerobic digesters contains a large number of contaminants including H2S, siloxanes, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If used as a fuel in an engine or turbine, the engine or turbine would quickly fail. So, the crude biogas, must be cleaned to "pipeline quality gas" through the use of "natural gas treating" equipment, also referred to as "biogas to biomethane" equipment, that upgrades the biogas into biomethane, which is then a useful product that can be sold as pipeline quality gas or used as a fuel in engines or turbines.
What is Methane Recovery?
Methane Recovery (and Biogas Recovery) is the process of recovering methane, also referred to as natural gas or CH4.
Biogas, a "crude" form of methane, can be recovered from a number of facilities and locations, including; dairy farms, landfills wastewater treatment plants using Anaerobic Digesters and cleaned up to "pipeline quality gas" with "biogas to biomethane" equipment.
What is Biogas Processing?
Biogas Processing, also referred to as Biogas Conditioning is the process of purifying "biogas to biomethane" and removes the impurities of raw biogas, such as; H2S, CO2, nitrogen, siloxanes, H20, and other impurities.
Biogas Processing is similar to "gas conditioning" in the oil and natural gas industry. Biogas conditioning is also referred to as commonly referred to as: Gas Sweetening, Natural Gas Conditioning or Natural Gas Treating, and may include several technologies in the gas processing process such as; Amine Plants, H2S Removal, and aqueous solutions of various alkanolamines (also referred to as amines) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas.
What is Gas Processing?
Natural Gas Processing plants separate the various hydrocarbons and natural gas liquids from the pure natural gas (methane or CH4) to produce what is known as 'pipeline quality' natural gas. Natural gas pipeline companies have requirements on natural gas they buy from producers which is why the natural gas processing plants are located where they are, and why they separate the ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes from the methane. Natural gas liquids or NGLs include ethane, propane, butane, iso-butane, and natural gasoline.
What is Syngas Cleanup?
The synthesis gas (syngas) produced from biomass gasification and plasma gasification plants contains a wide and varying number of pollutants and contaminants before the synthesis gas can be used as a "fuel gas." These pollutants and contaminants include;
heavy metals (trace amounts)
To meet environmental emission regulations, as well as to protect downstream processes, the owner/operator of biomass gasification and plasma gasification plants must insure these are removed in a "syngas cleanup" process.
Depending on the application, the synthesis gas may also require "conditioning" to adjust the hydrogen-to-carbon monoxide (H2-to-CO) ratio to meet downstream process requirements.
In applications where very low sulfur (<10 ppmv) synthesis gas is required, converting the carbonyl sulfide (COS) to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) before sulfur removal may also be required.
Typical syngas cleanup and conditioning processes include;
acid gas removal (AGR) for extracting sulfur-bearing gases and CO2 removal.
ammonia and chlorides
catalytic hydrolysis for converting COS to H2S
cyclone and filters for bulk particulates removal
solid absorbents for mercury and trace heavy metal removal
water gas shift (WGS) for H2-to-CO ratio adjustment
wet scrubbing to remove fine particulates
Fine Particulate Removal
The synthesis gas leaving today’s biomass gasification plants and tomorrow's plasma gasification plants is normally quenched and scrubbed with water in a trayed column for fine char and ash particulate removal prior to recycle to the slurry-fed biomass gasifiers.
For dry feed
biomass gasification, cyclones and candle filters are used to recover most of the fine particulate for recycle to the
gasifiers before final cleanup with water quenching and scrubbing. In addition, fine particulates, chlorides, ammonia, some H2S, and other trace contaminants are also removed from the
during the scrubbing process. The "scrubbed" synthesis gas
is then either reheated for COS hydrolysis and/or a sour WGS when required, or cooled in the low temperature gas cooling
(LTGC) system by generating low pressure steam, preheating boiler feed water, and heat exchanged with cooling water before further processing.
Spent water from the scrubber column is directed to the sour water treatment system, where it is depressurized and decanted in a gravity settler to remove fine particulates. Solid-concentrated underflows from the settler bottom are filtered to recover the fine particulate as the filter cake, which is then either discarded or recycled to the biomass gasifiers depending on its carbon content. Water from the settler is recycled for biomass gasification uses with the excess being sent to the wastewater treatment system for disposal.
COS Hydrolysis and Water-Gas-Shift
Most of the sulfur in the coal is converted to H2S during the biomass gasification process. Depending on the specific biomass gasification temperature and moisture content, approximately 3 to 10% of the sulfur is converted to COS. To generate low sulfur synthesis gas, the COS in the product gas needs to be converted to H2S before sulfur removal via current commercial AGR processes. This is done by passing the synthesis gas from the water scrubber through a catalytic hydrolysis reactor where over 99% of the COS is converted to H2S. The scrubbed synthesis gas feed is normally re-heated to 30 to 50 °F above saturation to avoid catalyst damage by liquid water.
In applications where a high synthesis gas H2-to-CO ratio is needed, synthesis gas from the water scrubber is passed through a multi-stage reactor containing sulfur-tolerant shift catalysts to convert CO and water into additional H2 and CO2. Normally, excess moisture is present in the scrubber synthesis gas from slurry-fed gasifiers to drive the shift reaction to achieve the required H2-to-CO ratio. For most slurry-fed biomass gasification systems, a portion of the synthesis gas feed may need to be bypassed around the sour shift reactor to avoid exceeding the required product H2-to-CO ratio. Depending on the gasification process and the required H2-to-CO ratio, additional steam injection before the sour shift may be needed for dry-fed biomass gasifiers. The scrubber synthesis gas feed is normally re-heated to 30 to 50 °F above saturation to avoid catalyst damage by liquid water. Shifted synthesis gas is cooled in the LTGC system by generating low pressure steam, preheating boiler feed water, and heat exchanging it against cooling water before going through the AGR system for sulfur removal.
Mercury and Trace Elements
Current commercial practice is to pass cooled synthesis gas from LTGC through sulfided, activated carbon beds to remove over 90% of the mercury and a significant amount of other heavy metal contaminants. Due to the sulfur in the activated carbon, these beds are normally placed ahead of the AGR system to minimize the possibility of sulfur slipping back into and contaminating the cleaned synthesis gas.
Acid Gas Removal (AGR)
Raw synthesis gas exiting the particulate removal and gas conditioning systems, typically near ambient temperature at 100°F, is routed to the AGR system where H2S removal and CO2 removal from the synthesis gas occurs using either physical or chemical solvent absorption. For chemical synthesis applications which require synthesis gas with less than 1 ppmv sulfur, physical solvent processes such as Rectisol and Selexol are normally used. For power generation applications, which allow higher sulfur levels (approximately 10 to 30 ppmv sulfur), chemical solvent processes such as Methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) and Sulfinol are normally used. The physical solvent absorption processes operate under cryogenic temperatures while the chemical solvent absorption processes operate slightly above ambient temperature.
In both physical and chemical absorption processes, the synthesis gas is washed with lean solvent in the absorber for H2S removal. Cleaned synthesis gas from the Acid Gas Removal process is then sent to downstream systems for further processing. Rich solvent leaving the bottom of the absorber is sent to the regenerator, where the solvent is stripped with steam under low pressure to remove the absorbed sulfur. The concentrated acid gas stream exits the top of the stripper and is sent to the Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) for sulfur recovery. The regenerated lean solvent from the bottom of the stripper is cooled by a heat exchanger against the rich solvent, followed by water cooling before being sent back to the absorber to start the absorption process again. The physical solvent processes tend to co-absorb more CO2 than MDEA. Multiple step depressurization of the rich solvent, supplemented with nitrogen stripping, is employed by the physical solvent processes to reject sufficient CO2 to concentrate the acid gas from the regenerator overhead to at least 15 to 25 Vol% H2S in order to feed the Claus SRU.
Because of the need for refrigeration, as well as more complex solution flashing arrangements, physical solvent processes are two to four times more costly than MDEA-based chemical solvent processes. While the physical solvent processes have higher power consumption than the chemical solvent processes, the chemical processes have higher steam consumption which translates to reduced power output from the power train. Thus overall net power output may be similar between the two types of AGR processes.
some of the above information from the Department of Energy website.
What is Ocean Water Desalination?
Water Desalination, also known as Reverse
Osmosis Desalination (RO or ROD) is a process that removes large
molecules and ions - typically from seawater or ocean water, by the application
of pressure to the sea water (or ocean water) when it is on one side of a
selective "membrane" or filter. The end result is that the large
molecules, ions and pollutants are retained on the pressurized side of the
membrane and the purified sea water or ocean water is allowed to pass to the
other side - normally to the community's citizens.
Ocean Water Desalination is primarily used in a city or community's water supply by desalinating; sea water, ocean water, or the water from lakes, underground aquifers or recharge wells. The water is desalinated by reverse osmosis by removing the large molecules, ions, salts and other contaminants from the water molecules.
The Ocean Water Desalination process is very similar to "membrane filtration" except that there are significant differences between Ocean Water Desalination and membrane filtration. The primary removal mechanism in membrane filtration is straining, or "size exclusion" which can - in theory - achieve perfect exclusion of the particles (pollutants) regardless of operational parameters such as influent pressure and concentration. Ocean Water Desalination involves a diffusive mechanism so that separation efficiency is dependent on the solute concentration, pressure and water flux rate.
In a city or community's Ocean Water Desalination plant, the sea water (or water from other sources) first enters the membrane filters or cartridge filters which removes the pollutants and particulate matter. From there, the water is pressurized to approximately 1,000 pounds per square inch. The high pressure forces some of the water in through the reverse osmosis membranes and is commonly referred to as desalinated or RO water - or simply "product" - is sent to the city or community's water mains and water towers for use by the community. The remainder of the water is rejected as brine and normally disposed in an underground injection well.
What is Seawater Desalination?
Seawater Desalination is the process of taking seawater and desalinating it, or removing the salt and other impurities, thereby becoming "potable" or safe for human consumption.
Seawater desalination is one of mankind's earliest forms of water treatment, and it is still a popular treatment solution throughout the world today. In ancient times, many civilizations used this process on their ships to convert sea water into drinking water. Today, seawater desalination plants are used to convert sea water to drinking water on ships and in many arid regions of the world, and to treat water in other areas that is fouled by natural and unnatural contaminants. Seawater desalination is perhaps the one water treatment technology that most completely reduces the widest range of drinking water contaminants.
In nature, this basic process is responsible for the hydrologic cycle. The sun causes water to evaporate from surface sources such as lakes, oceans, and streams. The water vapor eventually comes in contact with cooler air, where it re-condenses to form dew or rain. This process can be imitated artificially, and more rapidly than in nature, using alternative sources of heating and cooling.
It is estimated that some 30% of the world’s irrigated areas suffers from salinity problems and remediation is seen to be very costly.
In 2002 there were about 12,500 desalination plants around the world in 120 countries. They produce some 14 million m3/day of freshwater, which is less than 1% of total world consumption.
The most important users of desalinated water are in the Middle East, (mainly Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain), which uses about 70% of worldwide capacity; and in North Africa (mainly Libya and Algeria), which uses about 6% of worldwide capacity.
Among industrialized countries, the United States is one of the most important users of desalinated water (6.5%), specially in California and parts of Florida.
What is Reverse Osmosis Desalination?
Reverse Osmosis Desalination (RO or ROD) is a process that removes large molecules and ions - typically from seawater or ocean water, by the application of pressure to the sea water (or ocean water) when it is on one side of a selective "membrane" or filter. The end result is that the large molecules, ions and pollutants are retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the purified sea water or ocean water is allowed to pass to the other side - normally to the community's citizens.
Osmosis Desalination is primarily used in a city or community's water
supply by desalinating; sea water, ocean water, or the water from lakes,
underground aquifers or recharge wells. The water is desalinated by reverse
osmosis by removing the large molecules, ions, salts and other contaminants from
the water molecules.
The Reverse Osmosis Desalination process is very similar to "membrane filtration" except that there are significant differences between Reverse Osmosis Desalination and membrane filtration. The primary removal mechanism in membrane filtration is straining, or "size exclusion" which can - in theory - achieve perfect exclusion of the particles (pollutants) regardless of operational parameters such as influent pressure and concentration. Reverse Osmosis Desalination involves a diffusive mechanism so that separation efficiency is dependent on the solute concentration, pressure and water flux rate.
In a city or community's Reverse Osmosis Desalination plant, the sea water (or water from other sources) first enters the membrane filters or cartridge filters which removes the pollutants and particulate matter. From there, the water is pressurized to approximately 1,000 pounds per square inch. The high pressure forces some of the water in through the reverse osmosis membranes and is commonly referred to as desalinated or RO water - or simply "product" - is sent to the city or community's water mains and water towers for use by the community. The remainder of the water is rejected as brine and normally disposed in an underground injection well.
What is Solar Desalination?
Solar Desalination plants utilize the free energy from the sun to boil the ocean water. As the water vapor changes into steam and then the water vapor cools and condenses into pure drinking water that can be used for human consumption, or transforming deserts into farm land. All with the "free" energy from the sun and without any carbon emissions or greenhouse gas emissions, or the use of any fossil fuels.
What is Desalination?
The word saline means salt. Desalination refers to removing the salt from ocean water. This is typically done through Ocean Water Desalination plants or Reverse Osmosis Desalination.
A new and more exciting technology for making pure drinking water from ocean water is through "Solar Desalination."
Steam Distilled Water is the optimum choice for optimum health, optimum wellness and optimum longevity!
Pure, clean, water is one of the most essential requirements your body needs, for optimum health. Next to the air you breathe, the water you drink, and its' purity, is a critically important "choice" in your daily life.
Your body is comprised of about 70% water. You hear it all the time, you need to drink at least 8 glasses of water every day. But do you really know what's in the water you're drinking? While many people choose bottled water thinking that they are making the healthiest choice, few people realize that unless their bottled water is "steam distilled water," that they may be making a very unwise, and unhealthy choice. Note: each person daily requirement of drinking water varies from person to person.
If you think about it, an "average" person drinking 8 glasses of water every day, drinks about 12,000 gallons over their lifetime! Shouldn't the water you drink be the cleanest, purest water available?
Steam Distilled Water - the way nature intended!
Nature’s primary purification method in the hydrology cycle is "distillation" which includes both evaporation and condensation. nature's water cycle separates pure, fresh water from its contaminants during the hydrologic cycle. During this natural cycle, water evaporates up into the atmosphere becoming clouds and when the evaporated water becomes too heavy, it condenses "falling" back to the earth as precipitation or rain.
distillation combined with carbon filtration is the optimum water
"purification" technology that is superior to all others,
including water filters and reverse osmosis systems. Steam distillation
provides the most complete reduction of the widest range of contaminants
of all water purification technologies. Steam distillation removes
biological, inorganic and organic elements, including heavy metals,
chemicals and bacteria. Steam distillation systems typically
provide water that is 99% free of impurities, including heavy metals and most chemicals.
Steam distillation the optimum treatment for removing biological contaminants including
Giardia and Cryptosporidium.
Steam distillation "kills" all forms of microorganisms, including bacteria,
parasites, viruses and other harmful pathogens and microorganisms.
These harmful products/contaminants are NOT evaporated into the
steam distillation unit, but remain in the primary boiling container and
cleaned out after the steam distiller completes its cycle and cools
off. Our steam distillation systems also have an "activated carbon" post filtration
filter which provides the last step of the steam distillation process,
as well as a a venting system for removing pesticides and volatile organic
compounds, also known as VOCs. Steam distillation provides consistent
and optimum water purity.
Optimum Health, Optimum Wellness!
Few people remember most of their high school biology - so here's a reminder.... the water you drink is responsible for a wide variety of functions in your body after you drink it. This includes carrying nutrients such as oxygen to your body's cells. The water you drink cushions your joints and hydrates your skin. The water you drink helps convert food into energy. The water you drink removes toxins and wastes. The water you drink helps your body's natural healing process and optimizes your overall health! So it only stands to reason that if your drinking water is not as pure as it could be, your body will not function at an optimum level.
The problems with water filters
While water filters and water filtration systems may remove bad taste, odor, and some contaminants in your home's water, water filters will not remove; arsenic, bacteria, chemicals, chlorine, copper, lead, nitrates, parasites, sodium or viruses.
In fact, water filters can become a breeding ground for bacteria. This is due to the fact that after the organic materials are collected in the water filter, they immediately begin to decay and break down.
problem with water filters is knowing when to replace the filter. Some manufacturers suggest replacing
water filters too often, so they can sell more filter, or suggest changing the
water filters when bad tastes or odors return. The fact is, every community's
water supply is different from every other community's water supply, and water
filters are a poor choice for your drinking water when compared to "steam
The problems with Reverse Osmosis Systems
Reverse Osmosis (or "RO") water systems force water, under high pressure, through a filtration system containing a synthetic semi-permeable membrane for reducing inorganic minerals. Reverse osmosis systems use an inordinate amount of water, in fact, "wasting" a large amount of water. Some reverse osmosis water systems "waste" 7 gallons of water, to produce 1 gallon of purified water. Reverse osmosis systems vary widely in terms of quality and effectiveness, in their ability to reject contaminants. An RO's performance is affected by a number of external, uncontrolled factors, including; water pressure, water temperature, the pH of the water, bacteria, dissolved minerals, dissolved solids and the chemicals of the home's tap water. RO systems are also subject to other water filtration devices, including clogging/build-up of the RO system by the contaminants, which may also lead to bacterial growth.
Why Steam Distilled Water is the Natural Choice for Optimum Health!
Again, this bears repeating....... a home steam distillation unit mimics mother nature’s hydrology cycle. The hydrology cycle's primary purification method uses distillation (called evaporation) and condensation to separate pure, fresh water from its contaminants. The hydrologic cycle begins when Earth's water evaporates, condenses, then falls to the ground as precipitation, or rain. Steam distillation, combined with carbon filtration, is the one water treatment technology that most completely reduces the widest range of contaminants, including biological, organic and inorganic elements.
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